May to September
grasses include many genera and species with different flowering times, which may result in more than one peak during the grass pollen season, grasses are ubiquitous and present in almost all biotopes
many species are annual, perennial, perennial species have hibernation enabling clumps or rosettes, mostly herbaceous, some grasses are delicately built, root systems can achieve significant spread, stems are interrupted at intervals by nodes, three main inflorescence types: panicle, spike, and raceme
Important species in Europe:
Selection of important species in Europe:
Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail): distributed from the plains to the mountains, widespread flowering May (peak of the grass pollen season).
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass): widespread in Eurasia, in bloom from April to June.
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oatgrass): seeded grass used for forage and making hay. Common in pastures and forest openings. Flowering from June to August.
Poa pratensis (smooth or common meadow-grass): seeded grass most commonly used for lawns and pastures, widely distributed from the lowlands to the high alpine areas, in bloom from May to July.
Bromus hordaceus (soft brome): distributed widely in Europe from the plains up to middle mountain ranges, flowering from May to July.
Avena fatua (wild oat): found from the plains to the middle mountain areas, cereal weed, flowering from June to August.
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass): common in meadows and pastures, used as a pasture grass, flowering from May to September.
Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot): flowering from May to July, meadows, roadsides, waste places and forest margins.
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue): mainly in wet meadows, lowland forests and along roadsides, up to 1500m above sea level, in bloom from June to August.
Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog): green overwinter, flowering from May to August, pasture weed, from lowlands up to about 900m above sea level.
Phleum pratense (Timothy grass): prefers meadows, pastures, parkland and roadside verges, a pioneer plant on ruderal sites, flowering from June to September.
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass): originally from India, now pantropical, light and heat indicator, rhizomes survive heavy frosts, in bloom from May to September.
high, major allergens Lol p 1 -11
Ass. Prof. Dr. Siegfried Jäger (Medizinische Universität Wien)
Univ. Prof. Dr. Reinhart Jarisch (Floridsdorfer Allergie Zentrum)
Mag. Matthias Werchan (Charité Berlin)
Prof. Dr. med. Karl-Christian Bergmann (Charité Berlin)
Österreichischer Pollenwarndienst, Medizinische Universität Wien, Österreich
Charité, Allergie-Zentrum-Charité, Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Berlin, Deutschland
22 Jahre Blüh- und Fruktifikationsuntersuchungen der Waldbaumarten im Lehrforst Ofenbach/Rosalia. R. Litschauer. 2010. Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum für Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft, BFW-Berichte 144, 36 pp.
Waldbau auf soziologisch-ökologischer Grundlage. H. Mayer 1977. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart – New York, 482 pp.